Igneous provinces
The dispersion of Gondwana and the creation of the Indian Ocean was accompanied by a number of major igneous events that are also illustrated in the animation. These are probably best seen by viewing the animation in the forward direction.

At 182 Ma, extensive basalt outpourings in southern Africa (so-called Karoo basalts) are evident. They have their equivalent over large areas of Antarctica (not shown). This event occurred when the first separation of Gondwana was just getting started.

At 132 Ma, extensive outpourings of lava in South America (Parana) occurred with some overlap onto Africa (Etendeka) while the South Atlantic Ocean was still little more than a rift valley.

Between Antarctica and India the Kerguelen igneous province got started about 115 Ma, building an extensive (now) submarine plateau that is still


volcanically active and was responsible for generating the Ninety-East Ridge during India’s rapid northward migration.

At around 64 Ma, the vast Deccan Trap basalts of India were extruded. Their source subsequently trailed southward, creating the Laccadive and Maldive islands before crossing onto the African plate where Mauritius and Reunion have been created by it relatively recently.

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