The simplest way to measure distance is actually to use the plate carrée "projection"!
If you rotate this to put Enschede where the North pole would normally be (at the top), Enschede is the line on the upper edge of the map, instead of a point, and all measurements done vertically become distances!
This was first proposed by F. V. Botley in 1951.
Measure vertically to find the great-circle distance from Enschede to any other point. The clockwise direction from North is shown horizontally.
The azimuthal equidistant projection also shows both azimuth and distance relative to an origin, but in polar coordinates. This projection is far less distorted near the origin, and thus seems better overall.
However, it has to be said that rectangular coordinates are somewhat easier to read, and moreover the plate carrée would have been more straightforward to construct without the use of a computer.